Table of Contents: May 2014

In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells (yellow) receive input from photoreceptors (red, green and blue cells at the top of the image), and feed back to them. This interaction is the first step in visualizing contrast enhancement. The synaptic mechanism underlying this interaction is a combination of an extremely fast and a slow component. The fast component is an ephaptic interaction. The slow component involves pannexin 1 channels and extracellular ATP hydrolysis by ecto-ATPases (horseshoe shaped green label at the right side of the image) that leads to changes in pH in the synaptic cleft. The resulting pH-change affects neurotransmitter release by the photoreceptors. See Vroman et al.

Image Credit: Rozan Vroman


A Unified Classification of Alien Species Based on the Magnitude of their Environmental Impacts

Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Thomas Evans, Philip E. Hulme, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Ingolf Kühn, Sabrina Kumschick, Zuzana Marková, Agata Mrugała, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Anthony Ricciardi, David M. Richardson, Agnieszka Sendek, Montserrat Vilà, John R. U. Wilson, Marten Winter, Piero Genovesi, Sven Bacher


Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

Malin Ah-King, Andrew B. Barron, Marie E. Herberstein

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The Evolutionary Origin of Somatic Cells under the Dirty Work Hypothesis

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Exceptional Evolutionary Divergence of Human Muscle and Brain Metabolomes Parallels Human Cognitive and Physical Uniqueness

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Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

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