Table of Contents: August 2007

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mastodon tooth dated to 50,000–130,000 years ago that was recovered in Alaska clarifies the evolutionary history of elephants and mammoths. Using the mastodon sequence as an outgroup allowed the unambiguous determination that the mammoth and the Asian elephant are sister species and also provided a time scale for the speciation of mammoths and the elephant species (see Rohland et al.).

Image Credit: Background painting by George Teichmann ( from the Yukon Department of Palaeontology Art Collection, Accession number 13 ( Skeleton sketch from Lehrbuch der Geologischen Formationskunde by Emanuel Kayser, published by Verlag von Ferdinand Enke, Stutgart, Germany, 1902. Photograph of tooth by Paul Matheus. Overall illustration created by Sabine Giesser and Knut Finstermeier

Unsolved Mystery

Are Autumn Foliage Colors Red Signals to Aphids?

Lars Chittka, Thomas F Döring

Research Articles

Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects

Thomas Alerstam, Mikael Rosén, Johan Bäckman, Per G. P Ericson, Olof Hellgren

Proboscidean Mitogenomics: Chronology and Mode of Elephant Evolution Using Mastodon as Outgroup

Nadin Rohland, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Joshua L Pollack, Montgomery Slatkin, Paul Matheus, Michael Hofreiter

Spatial Learning Depends on Both the Addition and Removal of New Hippocampal Neurons

David Dupret, Annabelle Fabre, Màtè Dàniel Döbrössy, Aude Panatier, José Julio Rodríguez, Stéphanie Lamarque, Valerie Lemaire, Stephane H. R Oliet, Pier-Vincenzo Piazza, Djoher Nora Abrous

Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles

Marc Hammarlund, Mark T Palfreyman, Shigeki Watanabe, Shawn Olsen, Erik M Jorgensen

Precise Positioning of Myosin VI on Endocytic Vesicles In Vivo

David Altman, Debanjan Goswami, Tama Hasson, James A Spudich, Satyajit Mayor

The p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Is a Central Regulator of Glioma Invasion

Angela L. M Johnston, Xueqing Lun, Jennifer J Rahn, Abdelhamid Liacini, Limei Wang, Mark G Hamilton, Ian F Parney, Barbara L Hempstead, Stephen M Robbins, Peter A Forsyth, Donna L Senger

Targeted Inhibition of miRNA Maturation with Morpholinos Reveals a Role for miR-375 in Pancreatic Islet Development

Wigard P Kloosterman, Anne K Lagendijk, René F Ketting, Jon D Moulton, Ronald H. A Plasterk

Aging Hematopoietic Stem Cells Decline in Function and Exhibit Epigenetic Dysregulation

Stuart M Chambers, Chad A Shaw, Catherine Gatza, C. Joseph Fisk, Lawrence A Donehower, Margaret A Goodell

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