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Family living sets the stage for cooperative breeding and ecological resilience in birds

Fig 2

Ancestral state reconstruction (based on maximum likelihood) and estimated evolutionary transitions of bird social system (N = 2,968 species).

Pie charts plotted at each node represent the estimated posterior proportion of the 3 social systems: non-family living (green), family living (orange), and cooperative breeding families (blue).

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000483.g002