Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light
(A) Mice exposed to different wavelengths (405 nm violet, 470 nm blue, or 530 nm green) for 1 hr at ZT14 exhibited differences in sleep onset and sleep duration. (B) Sleep induction is delayed in response to blue light exposure. One-way ANOVA for wavelength, F(2.23) = 18.791, p ≤ 0.001. Posthoc Tukey violet versus blue p = 0.003, violet versus green p = 0.041, blue versus green p ≤ 0.001. (C) Total sleep duration during the 1 h light pulse is reduced in response to blue light. Data plotted as mean percentage ± SEM (n = 8–10/group). Horizontal black-white-black bar illustrates the light pulse condition from ZT14 until ZT15. One-way ANOVA for wavelength, F(2.23) = 4.391, p = 0.024. Posthoc Tukey violet versus blue p = 0.046, violet versus green p = 0.517, blue versus green p = 0.008. Statistical differences indicated by *** p ≤ 0.001, ** p ≤ 0.01, * p ≤ 0.05, NS = not significant. The data used to make this figure can be found in S1 Data.