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Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal

Fig 5

Effect of predator type upon stop signal vibrational characteristics (n = 282 bees from three colonies, analysis based upon the mean stop signal frequency and pulse duration per bee).

(A) Large hornets elicited stop signals with a consistently higher fundamental frequency. The spectrogram shows a typical stop signal produced by a forager attacked by the large hornet. (B) Nest attacks elicited signals with a consistently longer pulse duration. The oscillogram shows a typical stop signal produced by a worker attacked by the hornet at the nest entrance. Graphs show the mean ± 1 standard error. Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s HSD test, p < 0.05).

Fig 5