In Vivo Time-Resolved Microtomography Reveals the Mechanics of the Blowfly Flight Motor
Cutaway visualization of the steering muscles, looking out toward the wing hinge, with graphs of their measured strains (blue, high-amplitude wing; red, low-amplitude wing). The data points plot the strains measured for each individual fly (n = 4) at every stage of the wingbeat, starting at the beginning of the downstroke. The fitted curves are simple harmonic functions, except in the case of III1, which showed no significant time-periodic strain. Black vertical lines indicate the mean timing of the start of the upstroke. The strain in I1 was measured along a line running down the middle of the muscle and its tendon (white dashed line) to take account of buckling. Movie S2 animates this view through the wingbeat for both wings. b., basalare sclerite (filled red); ax.1, first axillary sclerite. Movie S2 can be viewed here.