The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae
(A) In vitro ovarian ecdysteroid secretion before and 18 h after a blood meal in virgin and mated dsLacZ and mated dsMISO. Graph shows data from eight individual ovaries. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (p>0.05). (B) Changes over time in the geometric mean of the ecdysteroid titer (natural logarithm) of dsLacZ (black solid line with circles) and dsMISO (green dashed line with triangles) females at 5 time points after mating (0.5, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hpm) with the mean trajectories estimated in regression mixed models (dashed and dotted lines). Nine replicates were performed using a pool of three atria each. (C) qRT-PCR of 5 20E-responsive genes (Vg, Lp, EcR, HR3, and USP) in dsMISO and dsLacZ females at different time points (0, 6, 12, 18 h) after mating. The levels of MISO after dsMISO injections are also shown. Four independent replicates were performed using a pool of 5–10 female abdomens. Expression was normalized to the housekeeping gene RpL19. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. One or two asterisks represent p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively.