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Rare Species Support Vulnerable Functions in High-Diversity Ecosystems

Figure 3

Percentage of rare and rarest species for different levels of functional vulnerability.

The functional vulnerability index is scaled (0–1) and was divided into four categories from high to least. Locally rare species are those with a mean abundance value over the samples where present less than 5% of the maximum local abundance value and rarest species are those with only one individual by sample where present on average. Regionally rare species are those with less than 5% of the maximum regional occupancy value and rarest species are those with only one occurrence over all the samples. For each level of vulnerability, we obtained the confidence interval at 90% by randomization and we tested whether the observed percentage of rare and rarest species is higher (red star) or lower (blue star) than expected by chance, otherwise black circle. The vertical grey line is the median obtained at random. Sample sizes are provided in Table S1.

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001569.g003