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Radar Tracking and Motion-Sensitive Cameras on Flowers Reveal the Development of Pollinator Multi-Destination Routes over Large Spatial Scales

Figure 3

Flight paths in the initial pentagonal array of flowers.

Black dots show the position of bees at 3 s intervals as recorded by the radar. Red dots indicate the locations of the artificial flowers (F1–F5) and the nest-box (N). (A) First flight of a naïve bee (for further tracks, see Figure S2). (B–F) Flight paths of experienced bees towards the end of training (flight paths for each bout are plotted in different colours, with the final flight in black). White arrows indicate the general directionality of the flower visitation sequence (clockwise or anticlockwise). Grey arrows indicate mean wind direction (degrees) and speed (m.s−1). The open black arrow (bottom left of each panel) indicates north. Stars indicate search loops between immediate revisits to flowers. Distances are in metres. Labels 1–5 refer to the same individuals in all figures and tables. Videos of all radar tracks are available (Videos S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13).

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001392.g003