IL-6 and IL-10 Anti-Inflammatory Activity Links Exercise to Hypothalamic Insulin and Leptin Sensitivity through IKKβ and ER Stress Inhibition
(A) 12 h of food intake in lean rats after thapsigargin infusion (3 µg). (B) Anorexigenic effects of insulin in the hypothalamus of lean rats pretreated with thapsigargin. (C) Anorexigenic effects of leptin in the hypothalamus of lean rats pretreated with thapsigargin. Western blots showing hypothalamic lysates from Wistar rats; (D) IKKβ, (E) PERK, and (F) IRS-1Ser307 phosphorylation from lean rats pretreated with thapsigargin. (G) Insulin-induced Akt serine phosphorylation, (H) leptin-induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of lean animals pretreated with thapsigargin, and (I) basal levels of Akt and STAT3 phosphorylation. Data are the means ± SEM. # p<0.05 versus DMSO group; * p<0.05 versus lean plus thapsigargin; § p<0.05 versus thapsigargin plus recombinant IL-6 or thapsigargin plus exercised (n = 8–10 animals per group).