IL-6 and IL-10 Anti-Inflammatory Activity Links Exercise to Hypothalamic Insulin and Leptin Sensitivity through IKKβ and ER Stress Inhibition
(A) Immunohistochemistry was performed in the hypothalamic tissue of control rats, using IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-specific antibody (green) and DAPI (blue), with 50× magnification. (B) Positive cells were quantified in different hypothalamic nuclei, § p<0.05 versus the other nuclei. (C) In situ hybridization showing the co-localization of IL-6R (red) with POMC, NPY, and AgRP (green) neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of control rats. Head arrows show neurons and arrows show endothelial cells using 20× and 63× magnification. (D) The dissection of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of lean and obese rats was obtained as described in Experimental Procedures to evaluate the mRNA of POMC, NPY, and AgRP, using the real time PCR. Data are the means ± SEM. # p<0.05 versus respective control group at rest; * p<0.05 versus obese rats at rest. Lean animals (yellow bars) and obese (blue bars). (E) Confocal microscopy was performed to evaluate the co-localization of IL-6R (green) and IKKβ, PERK, and IRS-1 (red) in the arcuate nuclei of obese rats, with 200× magnification (scale bar, 20 µm).