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IL-6 and IL-10 Anti-Inflammatory Activity Links Exercise to Hypothalamic Insulin and Leptin Sensitivity through IKKβ and ER Stress Inhibition

Figure 2

Hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling after exercise.

Western blots showing hypothalamic lysates from Wistar rats; (A) Hypothalamic IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, and Akt phosphorylation, (B) Hypothalamic Foxo1 phosphorylation. (C) 12-h food intake (kcal) after intrahypothalamic infusion of insulin in lean and diet-induced obesity (DIO) Wistar rats under resting conditions or after exercise (n = 6–8 animals per group). Western blots of five independent experiments showing hypothalamic lysates from Wistar rats; (D) Insulin-induced IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, and Foxo1 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus. (E) Subcellular fractionation was performed to evaluate the nuclear Foxo1 expression in the hypothalamus of lean and obese rats at 30 min after insulin infusion. (F) Hypothalamic Jak-2 and (G) STAT-3 tyrosine phosphorylation. (H) 12-h food intake (kcal) after intrahypothalamic infusion of leptin (n = 6–8 animals per group). Western blots showing hypothalamic lysates from Wistar rats; (I) Leptin-induced Jak2, IRS-1, IRS-2, and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in the hypothalamus. (J) Subcellular fractionation was performed to evaluate the nuclear STAT3 expression in the hypothalamic cells of lean and obese rats 30 min after leptin infusion. Data are the means ± SEM. # p<0.05 versus respective lean group at rest; * p<0.05 versus obese group at rest. Lean animals (white bars) and obese animals (black bars).

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000465.g002