A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages
(A) Isochron map representing dates of early Neolithic sites in Europe, based on data of Pinhasi et al. (2005) . KYBP, thousand years before present. (B) Geographical distribution of haplogroup frequency of hgR1b1b2, shown as an interpolated spatial frequency surface. Filled circles indicate populations for which microsatellite data and TMRCA estimates are available. Unfilled circles indicate populations included to illustrate R1b1b2 frequency only. Population codes are defined in Table 1. (C) Geographical distribution of mean microsatellite variance within hgR1b1b2, shown as an interpolated spatial frequency surface. Samples shown are those used for the calculation of variance only.