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Invasive Plant Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms

Figure 4

Experiment 5

(A) Effect of mycorrhizal dependency on Al. petiolata reduction of AMF colonization.

(B) Effect of mycorrhizal dependency on Al. petiolata reduction in plant growth. Mycorrhizal dependency was calculated separately as the difference between plant growth in the presence and absence of AMF. Different colors represent plants with different life-history strategies, as follows: yellow dot, herbaceous colonizers of disturbed edges and bare ground; reddish brown dot, herbaceous edge and gap species; blue dot, woody colonizers of forest edges and gaps; black dot, tree species of mature forest. Species are labeled as follows (with mean mycorrhizal colonization in soil not conditioned by garlic mustard ± standard error in parentheses): 1 = Ci. intybus (18.5 ± 4.1), 2 = Tr. repens (46.7 ± 6.3), 3 = Pl. major (28.2 ± 3.7), 4 = Ta. officinale (37.3 ± 2.5), 5 = S. canadensis (48.0 ± 6.2), 6 = C. leucanthemum (34.6 ± 3.1), 7 = D. carota (40.4 ± 6.2), 8 = As. syriaca (52.1 ± 5.8), 9 = J. virginiana (31.2 ± 4.4), 10 = Po. deltoids (63.9 ± 4.5), 11 = M. alba (38.6 ± 5.9), 12 = Pr. virginiana (28.4 ± 4.2), 13 = Fr. americana (65.9 ± 5.3), 14 = Ac. saccharum (46.3 ± 3.7), 15 = Ac. rubrum (59.5 ± 5.7), 16 = Pr. serotina (34.8 ± 5.5).

Figure 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040140.g004