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Invasive Plant Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms

Figure 3

Experiments 3 and 4

The effects of extract of garlic mustard (gm), sugar maple (sm), red maple (rm), white ash (wa), or a water control on (A) mycorrhizal colonization of native tree seedlings ( Fsugar maple = 20.3, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; Fred maple = 19.8, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; and Fwhite ash = 25.4, df = 4,49, p < 0.001 [Experiment 3]), (B) increase in biomass of native tree seedlings ( Fsugar maple = 11.7, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; Fred maple = 14.2, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; and Fwhite ash = 27.9, df = 4,49, p < 0.001 [Experiment 3]), and (C) percent germination of native AMF spores ( FGlomus = 17.3, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; and FAcaulospora = 21.8, df = 4,49, p < 0.001 [Experiment 4]). Bars represent the mean and standard error.

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040140.g003