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Invasive Plant Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms

Figure 2

Experiment 2

The effect of soils conditioned with garlic mustard Al. petiolata (gm), sugar maple (sm), red maple (rm), or white ash (wa) on (A) mycorrhizal colonization ( Fsugar maple = 31.2, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; Fred maple = 18.2, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; and Fwhite ash = 22.1, df = 4,49, p < 0.001) and (B) increase in biomass ( Fsugar maple = 15.1, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; Fred maple = 18.1, df = 4,49, p < 0.001; and Fwhite ash = 13.2, df = 4,49, p < 0.001) of native tree seedlings. Bars represent the mean and standard error.

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040140.g002