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Invasive Plant Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms

Figure 1

Experiment 1

The influence of field soils that were invaded or uninvaded by Al. petiolata (± sterilized) on (A) mycorrhizal colonization ( Fsugar maple= 77.7, df = 3,39, p < 0.001; Fred maple = 60.5, df = 3,39, p < 0.001; and Fwhite ash = 116.6, df = 3,39, p < 0.001) and (B) biomass accumulation ( Fsugar maple = 57.8, df = 3,39, p < 0.001; Fred maple = 61.4, df = 3,39, p < 0.001; and Fwhite ash = 70.1, df = 3,39, p < 0.001) of native tree seedlings. Bars represent the mean and standard error.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040140.g001