DNA Barcoding: Error Rates Based on Comprehensive Sampling
A subclade of five cowrie ESUs shows how both coalescent and divergence depths are generated. The two most disparate individuals are culled from within each ESU (left—red) and used in a constrained phylogeny with a molecular clock enforced (right) to recover both the maximum coalescent depth (red) and the divergence depths between sisters (yellow). Two young ESUs (stars) would be missed (false negatives) if a 3% threshold cutoff (shown) was employed. Note that Palmadusta artuffeli, a Japanese endemic species, is nested among monophyletic subspecies of the paraphyletic species P. clandestina. The black circle indicates the coalescent for the species P. clandestina, and the black star indicates the interspecific divergence for species-level analyses.