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DNA Barcoding: Error Rates Based on Comprehensive Sampling

Figure 1

Phylogenetic Relationships and Terminology

(A) Reciprocal monophyly. Members of each species share a unique common ancestor. For each species, the white star represents the coalescent, the point at which all extant haplotypes share a common ancestry.

(B) Paraphyly. One species (Y), is monophyletic, but nests within another recognized species (X). Thus, the coalescent of species Y (small star) is contained within the coalescent of species X (large star).

(C) Polyphyly. Neither species X or Y are monophyletic, and both coalesce to the white star.

Figure 1