DNA Barcoding: Error Rates Based on Comprehensive Sampling
(A) Reciprocal monophyly. Members of each species share a unique common ancestor. For each species, the white star represents the coalescent, the point at which all extant haplotypes share a common ancestry.
(B) Paraphyly. One species (Y), is monophyletic, but nests within another recognized species (X). Thus, the coalescent of species Y (small star) is contained within the coalescent of species X (large star).
(C) Polyphyly. Neither species X or Y are monophyletic, and both coalesce to the white star.