Wave-Like Spread of Ebola Zaire
(A) ML genetic distances (substitutions per nucleotide site) plotted as function of geographic distance separating pairs of outbreak sites for the six full-length, georeferenced sequences sampled by Leroy et al. (R2 = 0.70, Mantel test p = 0.002). Makokou and Yembelengoye sequences excluded because of unknown spatial origin of case and partial sequence, respectively (Protocol S3).
(B) Correlation between straight line distance from the initial ZEBOV outbreak site at Yambuku and patristic genetic distance to Yambuku for all available georeferenced, full-length sequences (R2 = 0.38 , n = 11, p = 0.040).
(C) Same as (B) but with geographic distances to the recent Gabon-Congo border outbreaks measured as passing through Booué (R2 = 0.92 , n = 11, p < 0.001).