A Pacific Culture among Wild Baboons: Its Emergence and Transmission
(A) Basal glucocorticoid levels (μg/100 ml). Males were split into higher- and lower-ranking 50%, by approach–avoidance criteria. The primate glucocorticoid, cortisol, was measured by radioimmunoassay.
(B) Number of anxiety-related behaviors observed 10–20 min after β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid administration (M-156, Research Biochemicals International, Natick, Massachusetts, United States), after subtracting the number observed 10–20 min after vehicle administration (dextrin in 1 ml saline); 0.5 g of the drug in 1ml saline was delivered intramuscularly by dart syringe (Pneu-Dart, Inc., Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States) fired from a blowgun at 5 m. Mean ± SEM. * and *** indicate p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, by unpaired t-test. Data were derived from a total of ten different males in F93–96, 31 different males in T93–98, and 18 different males in F79–82.