A Pacific Culture among Wild Baboons: Its Emergence and Transmission
(A) Percentage of male approach–avoidance dominance interactions occurring between males more than two ranks apart.
(B) Percentage of male approach–avoidance interactions occurring between males of adjacent ranks.
(C) Percentage of approach–avoidance interactions representing a reversal of the direction of dominance within a dyad by a male more than two steps lower ranking. Mean ± SEM, ** and *** indicate p < 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively, by t-test, treating each male/year as a data point. Data were derived from a total of ten different males in F93–96, 31 different males in T93–98, and 19 different males in F79–82. Potentially, the result in (B) could have arisen from different numbers of males in F93–96 versus the other two troops (a smaller group size does not change the number of adjacent animals available to any given subject, but decreases the number of nonadjacent animals available). However, the same results were found if the numbers of males in the three troops were artificially made equal by excluding excess males from either the top or the bottom of the hierarchy (data not shown).