About the Authors

Xiaojing Yang, Chao Tang
Center for Quantitative Biology and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Xiaojing Yang, Kai-Yeung Lau, Volkan Sevim
Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: XY KYL VS CT. Performed the experiments: XY KYL. Analyzed the data: XJ KYL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XY KYL VS. Wrote the paper: XY KYL VS CT. Built the stochastic model: KYL. Built the in silico evolution model: VS.