About the Authors

Miaoqing Fang

Affiliations Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Huangming Xie

Current address: Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Affiliation Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Stephanie K. Dougan

Affiliation Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Hidde Ploegh

Affiliations Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Alexander van Oudenaarden

a.vanoudenaarden@hubrecht.eu

Affiliations Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Hubrecht Institute, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: MF AvO. Performed the experiments: MF. Analyzed the data: MF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HX SKD HP. Wrote the paper: MF AvO.