About the Authors

Qi Chen

Contributed equally to this work with: Qi Chen, Luan Jiang

Affiliation Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Luan Jiang

Contributed equally to this work with: Qi Chen, Luan Jiang

Affiliation Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Chun Li

Affiliation Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Dan Hu

Affiliation Department of Mathematics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

Ji-wen Bu

Affiliation Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

David Cai

Affiliations Department of Mathematics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, United States of America

Jiu-lin Du

forestdu@ion.ac.cn

Affiliation Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: QC JLD. Performed the experiments: QC JWB. Analyzed the data: QC LJ CL DH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LJ CL DH DC. Wrote the paper: QC JLD. Designed research, carried out all experiments, analyzed data and wrote the paper: QC. Developed analysis methods of vasculature and analyzed data: LJ CL. Performed bead microinjection and TUNEL: JWB. Performed numerical simulation: DH DC. Designed research and wrote the paper: JLD.