About the Authors

Joe H. Levine

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Biology and Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States of America

Michelle E. Fontes

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Biology and Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States of America

Jonathan Dworkin

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Michael B. Elowitz

melowitz@caltech.edu

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Biology and Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: JHL MBE JD. Performed the experiments: JHL MEF. Analyzed the data: JHL MBE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JHL MEF MBE. Wrote the paper: JHL MBE.