About the Authors

Mehmet Somel

Contributed equally to this work with: Mehmet Somel, Xiling Liu

Address Current address: Department of Integrative Biology, University of California–Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Affiliations Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Xiling Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Mehmet Somel, Xiling Liu

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Lin Tang

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Zheng Yan

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Haiyang Hu

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Song Guo

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Xi Jiang

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Xiaoyu Zhang

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

Guohua Xu

Affiliations Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Gangcai Xie

Affiliations Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Na Li

Affiliation Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany

Yuhui Hu

Affiliation Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany

Wei Chen

Affiliations Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany

Svante Pääbo

paabo@eva.mpg.de (SP); khaitovich@eva.mpg.de (PK)

Affiliation Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Philipp Khaitovich

paabo@eva.mpg.de (SP); khaitovich@eva.mpg.de (PK)

Affiliations Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: MS WC SP PK. Performed the experiments: YZ XJ XZ NL YH. Analyzed the data: MS XL LT HH SG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GXu GXie WC. Wrote the paper: MS XL LT SP PK.