About the Authors

Lieven P Billen

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Candis L Kokoski

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Jonathan F Lovell

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Brian Leber

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada , Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

David W Andrews

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: andrewsd@mcmaster.ca

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

LPB, BL, and DWA conceived the experiments and wrote the paper. LPB, CLK, and JFL performed the experiments. All authors analyzed the data.