About the Authors

Nicolas Biais

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Benoît Ladoux

Affiliation Matière et Systèmes Complexes, CNRS UMR7057/Université Paris 7, Bâtiment Condorcet, 75205 Paris cedex 13, France

Dustin Higashi

Affiliation Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

Magdalene So

Affiliation Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

Michael Sheetz

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ms2001@columbia.edu

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

NB conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, and analyzed the data. BL, DH, and M. So contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. NB, BL, DH, M. So, and M. Sheetz wrote the paper.