About the Authors

Derek W Dunn

Affiliations Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, United Kingdom , School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom , School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

Simon T Segar

Affiliations Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, United Kingdom , School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

Jo Ridley

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

Ruth Chan

Affiliation Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, United Kingdom

Ross H Crozier

Affiliation School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

Douglas W Yu

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

James M Cook

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: james.cook@reading.ac.uk

Affiliations Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, United Kingdom , School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom , Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DWD, JR, DWY, and JMC developed the research plan and all authors discussed the results. DWD formulated the parasite hypothesis and then collected, dissected, and measured syconia and wasps; collated and analyzed the data; drew Figures 2, 3, and 5; and wrote the basic framework of the paper. STS and RC collected, dissected, and measured syconia and wasps, and helped collate data. JR drew Figure 4 and helped write the paper. RHC helped write the paper. DWY helped write the paper and contributed to data analysis. JMC collected foundress number data, helped write the paper, and drew Figure 1.