About the Authors

Costis Papanayotou

Affiliation Department of Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Anne Mey

Affiliations Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France , Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS/INRA, Lyon, France

Anne-Marie Birot

Affiliations Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France , Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS/INRA, Lyon, France

Yasushi Saka

Affiliation Wellcome/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute for Cancer and Developmental Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Sharon Boast

Affiliation Department of Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Jim C Smith

Affiliation Wellcome/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute for Cancer and Developmental Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jacques Samarut

Affiliations Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France , Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS/INRA, Lyon, France

Claudio D Stern

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: c.stern@ucl.ac.uk

Affiliation Department of Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

CP and CDS conceived and designed the project and most of the experiments. CP performed most of the experiments. AM and AMB performed the experiments on cES cells and two-hybrid screens from cES cell cDNAs (these were conceived and designed by JS), and CP and SB designed and performed the two-hybrid screen experiments using chicken embryo cDNAs. YS and JCS perfected the use of Venus for BiFCO experiments. AM, AMB, YS, JCS, and JS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. CP and CDS wrote the paper.