About the Authors

Wolfram Tempel

Contributed equally to this work with: Wolfram Tempel, Wael M Rabeh

Affiliation Structural Genomics Consortium and Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Wael M Rabeh

Contributed equally to this work with: Wolfram Tempel, Wael M Rabeh

Affiliation Structural Genomics Consortium and Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Katrina L Bogan

Affiliation Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

Peter Belenky

Affiliation Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

Marzena Wojcik

Address Current address: Department of Structural Biology, Chair of General Endocrinology, Medical University, Lodz, Poland

Affiliation Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

Heather F Seidle

Address Current address: American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Virginia, United States of America

Affiliation Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

Lyudmila Nedyalkova

Affiliation Structural Genomics Consortium and Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Tianle Yang

Affiliation Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America

Anthony A Sauve

Affiliation Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America

Hee-Won Park

Affiliation Structural Genomics Consortium and Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Charles Brenner

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: charles.brenner@dartmouth.edu

Affiliation Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

Competing Interests

AAS's institution has applied to patent the synthesis and use of NaR.

Author Contributions

CB and HWP supervised enzyme expression and purification, which was carried out by WMR, MW, HFS, and LN. WMR crystallized the enzyme. WT solved the crystal structures with HWP. PB, MW, and HFS performed mutagenesis and in vitro characterization with CB. TY performed synthesis designed by AAS. KLB demonstrated in vivo use with CB. CB coordinated the three groups and wrote the manuscript in collaboration with all contributors.