About the Authors

Angela L. M Johnston

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Xueqing Lun

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Jennifer J Rahn

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Abdelhamid Liacini

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Limei Wang

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Mark G Hamilton

Affiliations Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Ian F Parney

Affiliations Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Barbara L Hempstead

Affiliation Division of Hematology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America

Stephen M Robbins

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Peter A Forsyth

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: pforsyth@ucalgary.ca (PAF); senger@ucalgary.ca (DLS)

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Donna L Senger

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: pforsyth@ucalgary.ca (PAF); senger@ucalgary.ca (DLS)

Affiliations Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SMR, PAF, and DLS conceived and designed the experiments. ALMJ, XL, JJR, AL, and LW performed the experiments. ALMJ, XL, JJR, AL, LW, SMR, PAF, and DLS analyzed the data. MGH, IFP, BLH, and SMR contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. ALMJ and DLS wrote the paper. MGH and IFP supplied clinical surgical tissue for investigation.