About the Authors

Angela L. M Johnston, Xueqing Lun, Jennifer J Rahn, Abdelhamid Liacini, Limei Wang, Stephen M Robbins, Peter A Forsyth
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Angela L. M Johnston, Xueqing Lun, Jennifer J Rahn, Abdelhamid Liacini, Limei Wang, Ian F Parney, Stephen M Robbins, Peter A Forsyth, Donna L Senger
Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Angela L. M Johnston, Xueqing Lun, Jennifer J Rahn, Abdelhamid Liacini, Limei Wang, Mark G Hamilton, Ian F Parney, Stephen M Robbins, Peter A Forsyth, Donna L Senger
Clark H. Smith Integrative Brain Tumour Research Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Xueqing Lun, Jennifer J Rahn, Abdelhamid Liacini, Limei Wang, Ian F Parney, Stephen M Robbins, Peter A Forsyth, Donna L Senger
Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Xueqing Lun, Abdelhamid Liacini, Limei Wang, Mark G Hamilton, Ian F Parney, Peter A Forsyth
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Barbara L Hempstead
Division of Hematology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SMR, PAF, and DLS conceived and designed the experiments. ALMJ, XL, JJR, AL, and LW performed the experiments. ALMJ, XL, JJR, AL, LW, SMR, PAF, and DLS analyzed the data. MGH, IFP, BLH, and SMR contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. ALMJ and DLS wrote the paper. MGH and IFP supplied clinical surgical tissue for investigation.