About the Authors

Xiu-Ping Wang

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiu-Ping Wang, Marika Suomalainen

Affiliations Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, University of Helsinki, Finland , Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Marika Suomalainen

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiu-Ping Wang, Marika Suomalainen

Affiliation Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, University of Helsinki, Finland

Szabolcs Felszeghy

Affiliation Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, University of Helsinki, Finland

Laura C Zelarayan

Affiliation Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Maria T Alonso

Affiliations Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany , Institute for Biology and Molecular Genetics, Superior Research Council and University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

Maksim V Plikus

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Richard L Maas

Affiliation Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Cheng-Ming Chuong

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Thomas Schimmang

Affiliations Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany , Institute for Biology and Molecular Genetics, Superior Research Council and University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

Irma Thesleff

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: irma.thesleff@helsinki.fi

Affiliation Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, University of Helsinki, Finland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

XPW, MS, SF, LCZ, MTA, MVP, CMC, TS, and IT conceived and designed the experiments. XPW, MS, SF, LCZ, MTA, and MVP performed the experiments. XPW, MS, SF, LCZ, MVP, RLM, CMC, TS, and IT analyzed the data. XPW, MS, SF, RLM, CMC, TS, and IT wrote the paper.