About the Authors

Jian Xu

Contributed equally to this work with: Jian Xu, Michael A Mahowald

Affiliations Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America , Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Michael A Mahowald

Contributed equally to this work with: Jian Xu, Michael A Mahowald

Affiliation Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Ruth E Ley

Affiliation Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Catherine A Lozupone

Affiliation Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

Micah Hamady

Affiliation Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

Eric C Martens

Affiliation Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Bernard Henrissat

Affiliations Universités Aix-Marseille I and II, Marseille, France , CNRS, UMR6098, Marseille, France

Pedro M Coutinho

Affiliations Universités Aix-Marseille I and II, Marseille, France , CNRS, UMR6098, Marseille, France

Patrick Minx

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Philippe Latreille

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Holland Cordum

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Andrew Van Brunt

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Kyung Kim

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Robert S Fulton

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Lucinda A Fulton

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Sandra W Clifton

Affiliation Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Richard K Wilson

Affiliations Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America , Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Robin D Knight

Affiliation Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

Jeffrey I Gordon

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jgordon@wustl.edu

Affiliation Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JX, MAM, SWC, RKW, RDK, and JIG conceived and designed the experiments. JX, MAM, CAL, MH, ECM, PM, PL, HC, AVB, KK, RSF, LAF, and RDK performed the experiments. JX, MAM, REL, CAL, MH, ECM, BH, PMC, RDK, and JIG analyzed the data. JX and RDK contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. JX, MAM, REL, CAL, ECM, RDK, and JIG wrote the paper.