About the Authors

Olin K Silander, Olivier Tenaillon, Lin Chao
Division of Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Olin K Silander
Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Olivier Tenaillon
INSERM U722, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat, Paris, France

Olivier Tenaillon
Université Paris 7, Paris, France

Corresponding Author

olin.silander@env.ethz.ch

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

OKS, OT, and LC contributed to the conception of the experiments. OKS and OT performed the experimental evolution and the mutation accumulation. OKS performed the maximum likelihood analysis of the mutation accumulation data and the analysis of the sequence data. OT performed the simulation analyses of substitution rates.