About the Authors

Matthew B Sullivan

Contributed equally to this work with: Matthew B Sullivan, Debbie Lindell

Affiliation Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Debbie Lindell

Contributed equally to this work with: Matthew B Sullivan, Debbie Lindell

Affiliation Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jessica A Lee

Affiliation Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Luke R Thompson

Affiliation Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Joseph P Bielawski

Affiliations Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada , Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Sallie W Chisholm

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: chisholm@mit.edu

Affiliations Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America , Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MBS, DL, and SWC conceived and designed the experiments. MBS, DL, JAL, and LRT performed the experiments. MBS, DL, JAL, LRT, and JPB analyzed the data. MBS and DL wrote the paper, with significant contributions from all authors.