About the Authors

Jeffrey S Dukes

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jeffrey.dukes@umb.edu

Address ¤ Current address: Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California, United States of America

Nona R Chiariello

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Elsa E Cleland

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Lisa A Moore

Affiliation Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California, United States of America

M. Rebecca Shaw

Affiliation Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California, United States of America

Susan Thayer

Affiliation Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California, United States of America

Todd Tobeck

Affiliation Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California, United States of America

Harold A Mooney

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Christopher B Field

Affiliation Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

CBF, HAM, NRC, and MRS conceived and designed the experiments. JSD analyzed the data and wrote the paper. JSD, NRC, EEC, LAM, MRS, ST, TT, and CBF contributed substantially to the maintenance of the experiment and the collection, organization, and verification of data relevant to this paper.