About the Authors

Michael M Swarbrick

Contributed equally to this work with: Michael M Swarbrick, Björn Waldenmaier

Affiliation Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Björn Waldenmaier

Contributed equally to this work with: Michael M Swarbrick, Björn Waldenmaier

Affiliation Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

Len A Pennacchio

Affiliation Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

Denise L Lind

Affiliation Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Martha M Cavazos

Affiliation Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Frank Geller

Affiliation Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Phillips-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Raphael Merriman

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Anna Ustaszewska

Affiliation Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

Mary Malloy

Affiliation Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

André Scherag

Affiliation Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Phillips-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Wen-Chi Hsueh

Affiliation Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Winfried Rief

Affiliation Department of Psychology, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

Affiliation Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Clive R Pullinger

Affiliation Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

John P Kane

Affiliation Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Robert Dent

Affiliation Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Ruth McPherson

Affiliation University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Pui-Yan Kwok

Affiliation Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Anke Hinney

Affiliation Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

Johannes Hebebrand

Affiliation Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

Christian Vaisse

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: vaisse@diabetes.ucsf.edu

Affiliation Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MMS, BW, LAP, DLL, AH, JH, and CV conceived and designed the experiments. MMS, BW, DLL, and AU performed the experiments. MMS, BW, DLL, MMC, FG, AS, and WCH analyzed the data. LAP, MMC, RM, MM, WR, FMJ, CRP, JPK, RD, RM, PYK, AH, and JH contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. MMS, LAP, AH, JH, and CV wrote the paper.