About the Authors

Edward C Holmes

Affiliation Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Elodie Ghedin

Affiliation Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Naomi Miller

Affiliation Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Jill Taylor

Affiliation Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

Yiming Bao

Affiliation National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Kirsten St George

Affiliation Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

Bryan T Grenfell

Affiliation Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Steven L Salzberg

Affiliation Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Claire M Fraser

Affiliation Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

David J Lipman

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: lipman@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Affiliation National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jeffery K Taubenberger

Affiliation Department of Molecular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ECH conducted the phylogenetic analyses. EG and NM developed the laboratory protocols and sequenced the genomes for the influenza sequencing project. JT and KS collected the clinical isolates, selected the subset for sequencing, and prepared the viral RNA. YB performed quality assurance and annotated the sequences. SLS managed development of bioinformatics software for assembly and data management for the influenza sequencing project. CMF contributed to overall project management. DJL and JKT analyzed the data. ECH, BTG, DJL, and JKT wrote the paper.