About the Authors

Renaud Lacroix

Affiliation Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Université P. and M. Curie, Paris, France

Wolfgang R Mukabana

Affiliation Department of Zoology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Louis Clement Gouagna

address: Instiut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Département Société et Santé–UR 016, Montpellier, France

Affiliation Mbita Point Research and Training Centre, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Mbita Point, Kenya

Jacob C Koella

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jkoella@gmail.com

Affiliation Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Université P. and M. Curie, Paris, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

RL, WRM, and JCK conceived and designed the experiments. RL and WRM performed the experiments. RL and JCK analysed the data. WRM and LCG contributed reagents, materials, and analysis tools. JCK wrote the paper.