About the Authors

Hiroyuki Ogata

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Hiroyuki.Ogata@igs.cnrs-mrs.fr (HO), Email: Didier.Raoult@medecine.univ-mrs.fr (DR)

Affiliation Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory, UPR 2589, IBSM, CNRS, Marseille Cedex, France

Patricia Renesto

Affiliation Unité des Rickettsies, UMR 6020, IFR 48, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille Cedex, France

Stéphane Audic

Affiliation Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory, UPR 2589, IBSM, CNRS, Marseille Cedex, France

Catherine Robert

Affiliation Unité des Rickettsies, UMR 6020, IFR 48, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille Cedex, France

Guillaume Blanc

Affiliation Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory, UPR 2589, IBSM, CNRS, Marseille Cedex, France

Pierre-Edouard Fournier

Affiliations Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory, UPR 2589, IBSM, CNRS, Marseille Cedex, France, Unité des Rickettsies, UMR 6020, IFR 48, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille Cedex, France

Hugues Parinello

Affiliation Unité des Rickettsies, UMR 6020, IFR 48, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille Cedex, France

Jean-Michel Claverie

Affiliation Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory, UPR 2589, IBSM, CNRS, Marseille Cedex, France

Didier Raoult

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Hiroyuki.Ogata@igs.cnrs-mrs.fr (HO), Email: Didier.Raoult@medecine.univ-mrs.fr (DR)

Affiliation Unité des Rickettsies, UMR 6020, IFR 48, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille Cedex, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

HO performed genome annotation and coordinated the bioinformatics analyses. PR performed electron microscopic analysis of pili, immunofluorescence assay of actin-based motility, and hemolytic activity assay. SA and CR assembled genome sequences, performed sequence finishing, and carried out experiments to characterize the plasmids. CR constructed genomic libraries. GB performed most phylogenetic analyses. PEF performed β-lactamase activity assay and contributed to the bioinformatics analyses. HP contributed to the sequencing. JMC provided laboratory (computing) support and supplied ideas. DR provided laboratory (experimental) support, supplied ideas, and coordinated the experimental aspects of the work. All authors contributed in drafting the manuscript.