About the Authors

Teresa C Leone

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

John J Lehman

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Brian N Finck

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Paul J Schaeffer

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Adam R Wende

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Sihem Boudina

Affiliation Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

Michael Courtois

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

David F Wozniak

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Nandakumar Sambandam

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Carlos Bernal-Mizrachi

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Zhouji Chen

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

John O. Holloszy

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Denis M Medeiros

Affiliation Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America

Robert E Schmidt

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Jeffrey E Saffitz

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

E. Dale Abel

Affiliation Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

Clay F Semenkovich

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Daniel P Kelly

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dkelly@im.wustl.edu

Affiliations Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

TCL, JJL, BNF, PJS, and DPK conceived and designed the experiments. TCL, JJL, BNF, PJS, ARW, SB, MC, DFW, NS, CBM, ZC, DMM, RES, and EDA performed the experiments. TCL, JJL, BNF, PJS, ARW, SB, MC, DFW, NS, CBM, ZC, JOH, DMM, RES, JES, EDA, CFS, and DPK analyzed the data. TCL, BNF, and DPK wrote the paper.