About the Authors

Jun Yu

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: junyu@genomics.org.cn (JY), Email: hyang@genomics.org.cn (HY), Email: gksw@genomics.org.cn (JW), Email: wangjian@genomics.org.cn (GW)

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Jun Wang

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Wei Lin

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Songgang Li

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Heng Li

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Jun Zhou

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Peixiang Ni

Contributed equally to this work with: Jun Yu, Jun Wang, Wei Lin, Songgang Li, Heng Li, Jun Zhou, Peixiang Ni

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Wei Dong

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Songnian Hu

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Changqing Zeng

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jianguo Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yong Zhang

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Ruiqiang Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Zuyuan Xu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Shengting Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xianran Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Hongkun Zheng

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Lijuan Cong

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Liang Lin

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jianning Yin

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jianing Geng

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Guangyuan Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jianping Shi

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Juan Liu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Hong Lv

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jun Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jing Wang

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Yajun Deng

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Longhua Ran

Affiliation Beijing North Computation Center, Beijing, China

Xiaoli Shi

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Xiyin Wang

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Qingfa Wu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Changfeng Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xiaoyu Ren

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jingqiang Wang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xiaoling Wang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Dawei Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Dongyuan Liu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xiaowei Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Zhendong Ji

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Wenming Zhao

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yongqiao Sun

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Zhenpeng Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jingyue Bao

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yujun Han

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Lingli Dong

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jia Ji

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Peng Chen

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Shuming Wu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jinsong Liu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Ying Xiao

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Dongbo Bu

Affiliation BioInformatics Laboratory, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Jianlong Tan

Affiliation BioInformatics Laboratory, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Li Yang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Chen Ye

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jingfen Zhang

Affiliation BioInformatics Laboratory, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Jingyi Xu

Affiliation BioInformatics Laboratory, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Yan Zhou

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Yingpu Yu

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Bing Zhang

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Shulin Zhuang

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Haibin Wei

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Bin Liu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Meng Lei

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Hong Yu

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Yuanzhe Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Hao Xu

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Shulin Wei

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Ximiao He

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Lijun Fang

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Zengjin Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yunze Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xiangang Huang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Zhixi Su

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Wei Tong

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jinhong Li

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Zongzhong Tong

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Shuangli Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jia Ye

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Lishun Wang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Lin Fang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Tingting Lei

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Chen Chen

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Huan Chen

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Zhao Xu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Haihong Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Haiyan Huang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Feng Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Huayong Xu

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Na Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Caifeng Zhao

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Shuting Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Lijun Dong

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yanqing Huang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Long Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yan Xi

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Qiuhui Qi

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Wenjie Li

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Bo Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Wei Hu

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Yanling Zhang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xiangjun Tian

Affiliation James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Yongzhi Jiao

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Xiaohu Liang

Affiliation Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China

Jiao Jin

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, Department of Statistics and Financial Mathematics, College of Mathematical Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

Lei Gao

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Weimou Zheng

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Bailin Hao

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Siqi Liu

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Wen Wang

Affiliations James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

Longping Yuan

Affiliation National Hybrid Rice R & D Center, Changsha, China

Mengliang Cao

Affiliation National Hybrid Rice R & D Center, Changsha, China

Jason McDermott

Affiliation Computational Genomics Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Ram Samudrala

Affiliation Computational Genomics Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Jian Wang

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: junyu@genomics.org.cn (JY), Email: hyang@genomics.org.cn (HY), Email: gksw@genomics.org.cn (JW), Email: wangjian@genomics.org.cn (GW)

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Gane Ka-Shu Wong

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: junyu@genomics.org.cn (JY), Email: hyang@genomics.org.cn (HY), Email: gksw@genomics.org.cn (JW), Email: wangjian@genomics.org.cn (GW)

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China, UW Genome Center, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Huanming Yang

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: junyu@genomics.org.cn (JY), Email: hyang@genomics.org.cn (HY), Email: gksw@genomics.org.cn (JW), Email: wangjian@genomics.org.cn (GW)

Affiliations Beijing Institute of Genomics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Genomics Institute, Beijing Proteomics Institute, Beijing, China, James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Genomics Institute, Key Laboratory of Genomic Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The following authors conceived and designed the experiments: Jun Yu, Jian Wang, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, and Huanming Yang.