About the Authors

Sean R Collins

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Adam Douglass

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Ronald D Vale

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Jonathan S Weissman

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jsw1@itsa.ucsf.edu

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

SRC, AD, RDV, and JSW conceived and designed the experiments. SRC and AD performed the experiments. SRC, AD, and JSW analyzed the data. RDV and JSW contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. SRC and JSW wrote the paper.