About the Authors

Paul D. N Hebert, Tyler S Zemlak
Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Mark Y Stoeckle
Program for the Human Environment, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

Charles M Francis
National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

PDNH conceived and designed the experiments. TSZ performed the experiments. PDNH, MYS, and TSZ analyzed the data. CMF contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. PDNH, MYS, and CMF wrote the paper.