About the Authors

Tadashi Imanishi, Takeshi Itoh, Yumi Yamaguchi-Kabata, Motohiko Tanino, Chisato Yamasaki, Jun-ichi Takeda, Craig Gough, Phillip Hilton, Yasuyuki Fujii, Hiroaki Sakai, Susumu Tanaka, Hideki Hanaoka, Erimi Harada, Hidetoshi Inoko, Yayoi Kaneko, Naoki Nagata, Rie Shiba, Aiko Takahashi, Gen Tamiya, Norikazu Yasuda, Takashi Gojobori
Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Takeshi Itoh
Bioinformatics Laboratory, Genome Research Department, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan

Yutaka Suzuki, Mitsuteru Nakao, Osamu Ogasawara, Shinya Watanabe, Kenta Nakai, Toshihisa Takagi, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Sumio Sugano
Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano
Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Claire O'Donovan, Arek Kasprzyk, Nicola Mulder, Youla Karavidopoulou, Alexander Kanapin, Paul Kersey, Florence Servant, Rolf Apweiler
EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Satoshi Fukuchi, Roberto A Barrero, Satoru Miyazaki, Kazuho Ikeo, Keiichi Homma, Lihua Jin, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Kousuke Hanada, Takashi Makino, Jun Mashima, Toshihisa Okido, Katsunaga Sakai, Shigetaka Sakamoto, Mami Suzuki, Ken Nishikawa, Hideaki Sugawara, Yoshio Tateno, Kousaku Okubo, Takashi Gojobori
Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

Kanako O Koyanagi
Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan

Takuro Tamura, Motohiko Tanino, Craig Gough, Phillip Hilton, Yasuyuki Fujii, Hiroaki Sakai, Susumu Tanaka, Erimi Harada, Hidetoshi Inoko, Yayoi Kaneko, Rie Shiba, Aiko Takahashi, Gen Tamiya, Norikazu Yasuda
Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

Takuro Tamura
BITS Company, Shizuoka, Japan

Kei Yura
Quantum Bioinformatics Group, Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto, Japan

Tetsuo Nishikawa, Takao Isogai
Reverse Proteomics Research Institute, Chiba, Japan

Tetsuo Nishikawa, Tomohiro Yasuda, Kouichi Kimura, Keiichi Nagai
Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan

Mika Hirakawa, Minoru Kanehisa
Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Jean Thierry-Mieg, Danielle Thierry-Mieg, Stephen Sherry, Lukas Wagner
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jean Thierry-Mieg, Danielle Thierry-Mieg
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique, Montpellier, France

Jennifer Ashurst, Eduardo Eyras, Charles Steward, Laurens Wilming
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Libin Jia, Robert L Strausberg
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Michael A Thomas
Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, United States of America

Sangsoo Kim, Yoonsoo Hahn, Hyang-Sook Yoo
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon, Korea

Boris Lenhard, Anthony J Brookes
Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Eric Eveno, Claude Chelala, Christine Couillault, Marie-Anne Debily, Esther Graudens, Sandrine Imbeaud, Regine Mariage-Samson, Dominique Piatier-Tonneau, Charles Auffray
Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France

Eric Eveno, Christine Couillault, Esther Graudens, Ze-Guang Han, Sandrine Imbeaud, Shuang-Xi Ren, Zhu Chen, Charles Auffray
Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China

Hiroaki Sakai, Toshio Ota
Tokyo Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Company, Tokyo, Japan

Clara Amid, Michael Han, Hans-Werner Mewes
MIPS—Institute for Bioinformatics, GSF—National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Matthew Bellgard
Centre for Bioinformatics and Biological Computing, School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia

Maria de Fatima Bonaldo, Bento Soares
Medical Education and Biomedical Research Facility, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

Hidemasa Bono, Takeya Kasukawa, Yasushi Okazaki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki
Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

Susan K Bromberg, Rajni Nigam, Mary Shimoyama
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

Elspeth Bruford
HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Piero Carninci
Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan

Sandro J. de Souza, Andrew J Simpson
Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Marie-Dominique Devignes
CNRS, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France

Inna Dubchak
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Toshinori Endo, Hiroshi Tanaka
Department of Bioinformatics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Anne Estreicher, Ursula Hinz
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva, Switzerland

Kaoru Fukami-Kobayashi, Satoshi Oota
Bioresource Information Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, Ibaraki, Japan

Gopal R. Gopinath
Genome Knowledgebase, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States of America

Ze-Guang Han, Shuang-Xi Ren, Zhu Chen
Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, Shanghai, China

Katsuyuki Hashimoto
Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

Momoki Hirai, Ryuichi Sakate
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, Department of Integrated Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan

Teruyoshi Hishiki, Kousaku Okubo, Nobuo Nomura, Sumio Sugano
Functional Genomics Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Ian Hopkinson
Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free University College Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Ian Hopkinson
Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, The Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

Hidetoshi Inoko, Shuhei Mano, Gen Tamiya
Department of Genetic Information, Division of Molecular Life Science, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

Janet Kelso, Winston Hide
South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Reiko Kikuno, Osamu Ohara, Michio Oishi
Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan

Bernhard Korn
RZPD Resource Center for Genome Research, Heidelberg, Germany

Vladimir Kuryshev, Annemarie Poustka, Ingo Schupp, Stefan Wiemann
Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany

Izabela Makalowska, Vamsi Veeramachaneni, Wojciech Makalowski
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Hideo Matsuda
Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Shinsei Minoshima
Medical Photobiology Department, Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan

Shinsei Minoshima, Masafumi Ohtsubo, Nobuyoshi Shimizu
Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Hideki Nagasaki, Makiko Suwa
Computational Biology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Norihiro Okada
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa, Japan

Motonori Ota
Global Scientific Information and Computing Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Tetsuji Otsuki
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Medicinal Research Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Company, Saitama, Japan

Naruya Saitou
Department of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

Todd Taylor, Yoshiyuki Sakaki
Human Genome Research Group, Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

Joseph D Terwilliger
Columbia University and Columbia Genome Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Per Unneberg
Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Marvin Stodolsky
Biology Division and Genome Task Group, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C, United States of America

Mitiko Go
Faculty of Bio-Science, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga, Japan

John Quackenbush
Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Ranajit Chakraborty
Center for Genome Information, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America

Zhu Chen
State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai, China

Peter Tonellato
PointOne Systems, Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, United States of America

Takao Isogai
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Takashi Gojobori
Department of Genetics, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shizuoka, Japan

Corresponding Author

tgojobor@genes.nig.ac.jp

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

The project was conceived and designed by T. Imanishi, T. Itoh, Y. Suzuki, C. O'Donovan, S. Fukuchi, Y. Yamaguchi-Kabata, S. Miyazaki, K. Ikeo, A. Kasprzyk, T. Nishikawa, M. Stodolsky, W. Makalowski, M. Go, K. Nakai, T. Takagi, M. Kanehisa, Y. Sakaki, J. Quackenbush, Y. Okazaki, Y. Hayashizaki, W. Hide, R. Chakraborty, K. Nishikawa, H. Sugawara, Y. Tateno, Z. Chen, M. Oishi, P. Tonellato, R. Apweiler, K. Okubo, L. Wagner, S. Wiemann, R. L. Strausberg, T. Isogai, C. Auffray, N. Nomura, T. Gojobori, and S. Sugano.