About the Authors

Jessica R Ward

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jrw37@cornell.edu

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

Kevin D Lafferty

Affiliation United States Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

JRW performed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. KDL conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper.