About the Authors

Eric L Snyder

Affiliations Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Bryan R Meade

Affiliation Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Cheryl C Saenz

Affiliations Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Reproductive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Steven F Dowdy

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: sdowdy@ucsd.edu

Affiliations Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

SFD is the scientific founder of Ansata Therapeutics, a biotech company utilizing protein transduction technology to treat human disease. However, he owns less than 5% of the stock, does not receive any research funds from Ansata, does not have a seat on the board of directors, and has no say in the governance of the company.

Author Contributions

ELS and SFD conceived and designed the experiments. ELS, BRM, and CCS performed the experiments. CCS and SFD analyzed the data. BRM and CCS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. ELS and SFD wrote the paper.