About the Authors

Yi Tang

Affiliation Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Taek Soon Lee

Affiliation Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Chaitan Khosla

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ck@chemeng.stanford.edu

Affiliations Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

A patent application has been filed by Stanford University for aspects of the work described in this paper.

Author Contributions

YT, TSL, and CK conceived and designed the experiments. YT and TSL performed the experiments. YT and TSL analyzed the data. YT wrote the paper.